Objective: To identify whether positive, negative, or zero work is being done, to identify the force that is doing the work, and to describe the energy transformation associated with such work.
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Recognize general conceptual patterns associated with object placement and the characteristics of images.
Apply the model of object-image relationships in order to extrapolate, to construct graphical representations, and to identify the explanation of described phenomenon.
Investigate how the object's location affects the characteristics of the resulting image.
Wizard Difficulty Level
Combine findings from two or more experiments to build a more complex model about how object placement affects image characteristics.
Apprentice Difficulty Level
Master Difficulty Level
No, Stay Here
Each Science Reasoning task is based on a passage or story that presents data and information or describes an experiment or phenomenon. Students must combine an understanding of science content and science reasoning skills (science practices) to answer questions about the passage or story.
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A group of students are studying the images that are produced by a concave spherical mirror. The anatomy of a concave mirror is shown in Figure 1. There is a focal point (F) and a center of curvature (C) positioned along an imaginary line known as the principal axis.
The students take their mirror outside and point it towards the sun. They reflect sunlight off the mirror onto a note card. An image of the sun – a bright dot – forms on the note card. They measure the distance from the mirror to the note card to be 14.9 cm. This distance is the focal length – the distance from focal point to the mirror.
In Experiment 2, the students take the same mirror and mount it in putty on a lab table. They place a small piece of tape on the table and label it F for focal point. They position a small night light bulb on the table and inscribe a smiley face on the front of the bulb. Light from the bulb reflects off the mirror and converges to form an image. They project the image on a note card and observe its characteristics. They find that the location of the object bulb affects the characteristics of the image. For instance, when the light bulb is at position 1, they find the image (at position 1') is smaller in size (reduced) and upside down (inverted). In contrast, when the object bulb is at position 4, the image (at position 4') is larger in size (magnified) but still inverted. Figure 2 summarizes their findings.
In Experiment 3, the students use the same set up and a similar method that was used in Experiment 2. But this time they make measurements of the distance from object to mirror (known as the object distance) and of the distance from the image to the mirror (known as the image distance). They also measure the diameter of the image for each image that is formed. The bulb’s actual diameter is 4.1 cm. All measurements are shown in Table 1.
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Template Version 1.2 Added Question Scene 4 for Table Completion