Objective: To identify whether positive, negative, or zero work is being done, to identify the force that is doing the work, and to describe the energy transformation associated with such work.
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Use data to make basic claims regarding the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction.
Use data to begin to develop a quantitative model that relates the amount of refraction to the index of refraction and the angles of incidence and refraction. Includes 4 Questions.
Use data and graphs to identify the equations that relate indices of refraction, speed of light, and angles of incidence and refraction. Includes 4 Questions.
Wizard Difficulty Level
Analyze and compare the results of two experiments in which light passes from air into two different materials.
Apprentice Difficulty Level
Immortal Sage Difficulty Level
Master Difficulty Level
No, Stay Here
Each Science Reasoning task is based on a passage or story that presents data and information or describes an experiment or phenomenon. Students must combine an understanding of science content and science reasoning skills (science practices) to answer questions about the passage or story.
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A physics class was attempting to determine the relationship between the angle of incidence (θi) and the angle of refraction (θr) for light traveling from one material to another.
The experiment involved shining laser light from air into a dish of water at a known angle of incidence and measuring the angle of refraction in the water. Figure 1 represents the experimental set-up. Each lab group was assigned a set of angles of incidence; their goal was to measure the corresponding angles of refraction. Results from each lab group were collected to provide measurements at 1-degree intervals for angles of incidence between 0° and 90°.
Once the class completed their measurements using a water-filled dish, they repeated the investigation using a D-shaped, solid disk of Lucite glass. They made similar measurements of θi and θr and gathered results from the entire class.
The class data was plotted and two types of plots were created for both experiments. The plot shown in Figure 2 included the angles of refraction and incidence along the axes. The plot shown in Figure 3 included the sines of these angles along the two axes. The slope (m) of the best-fit line through each set of data points was determined; these are displayed below each graph for the two experiments.
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Template Version 1.2 Added Question Scene 4 for Table Completion
One aspect of safe driving involves the ability to stop a car readily. This ability depends upon the driver's alertness and readiness to stop, the conditions of the road, the speed of the car, and the braking characteristics of the car. The actual distance it takes to stop a car consists of two parts - the reaction distance and braking distance.
When a driver sees an event in his/her field of view that might warrant braking (for example, a dog running into the street), a collection of actions must be taken before the braking actually begins. First the driver must identify the event and decide if braking is necessary. Then the driver must lift his/her foot off the gas pedal and move it to the brake pedal. And finally, the driver must press the brake down its full distance in order to obtain maximum braking acceleration. The time to do all this is known as the reaction time. The distance traveled during this time is known as the reaction distance. Once the brakes are applied, the car begins to slow to a stop. The distance traveled by the car during this time is known as the braking distance. The braking distance is dependent upon the original speed of the car, the road conditions, and characteristics of the car such as its profile area, mass and tire conditions. Figure 1 shows the stopping distance for a Toyota Prius on dry pavement resulting from a 0.75-second reaction time.
The reaction time of the driver is highly dependent upon the alertness of the driver. Small changes in reaction time can have a large effect upon the total stopping distance. Table 1 shows the reaction distance, braking distance, and total stopping distance for a Toyota Prius with an original speed of 50.0 mi/hr and varying reaction times.