Objective: To identify whether positive, negative, or zero work is being done, to identify the force that is doing the work, and to describe the energy transformation associated with such work.
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The Periodic Table, Elements, and Their Bonds
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Identify the patterns associated with the ratios by which atoms of various elements combine to form ionic compounds.
Relate the outer shell electron diagrams to the tendency of elements of elements to form ionic or covalent bonds.
Summarize the relationship between the Periodic Table, the metal and non-metal elements, and the type of bonds that form between them.
Outer Shell Electrons
Use the location of elements in the Periodic Table to predict and describe the type of bond that they would form.
Reactivity Patterns of Elements
Describing Elements and Their Bonds
Identifying Bond Types
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One aspect of safe driving involves the ability to stop a car readily. This ability depends upon the driver's alertness and readiness to stop, the conditions of the road, the speed of the car, and the braking characteristics of the car. The actual distance it takes to stop a car consists of two parts - the reaction distance and braking distance.
When a driver sees an event in his/her field of view that might warrant braking (for example, a dog running into the street), a collection of actions must be taken before the braking actually begins. First the driver must identify the event and decide if braking is necessary. Then the driver must lift his/her foot off the gas pedal and move it to the brake pedal. And finally, the driver must press the brake down its full distance in order to obtain maximum braking acceleration. The time to do all this is known as the reaction time. The distance traveled during this time is known as the reaction distance. Once the brakes are applied, the car begins to slow to a stop. The distance traveled by the car during this time is known as the braking distance. The braking distance is dependent upon the original speed of the car, the road conditions, and characteristics of the car such as its profile area, mass and tire conditions. Figure 1 shows the stopping distance for a Toyota Prius on dry pavement resulting from a 0.75-second reaction time.
The reaction time of the driver is highly dependent upon the alertness of the driver. Small changes in reaction time can have a large effect upon the total stopping distance. Table 1 shows the reaction distance, braking distance, and total stopping distance for a Toyota Prius with an original speed of 50.0 mi/hr and varying reaction times.
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Each Science Reasoning task is based on a passage or story that presents data and information or describes an experiment or phenomenon. Students must combine an understanding of science content and science reasoning skills (science practices) to answer questions about the passage or story.
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Template Version 1.2 Added Question Scene 4 for Table Completion
Reactivity Patterns of Elements,Identifying Bond Types,Outer Shell Electrons,Elements and Their Bonds
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are elements that form ...
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Consider these three sets of two elements. For each set, identify the type of bond they will most likely form and the reason for your choice. Finally, identify the description that best describes the nature of this bond.
Elements A and B will form _________________ bonds.
About This Activity:
The electrons that surround the nucleus of atoms are perceived as occupying the space of concentric shells of varying size and spherical shape. The electrons in the outer shell of an atom (known as the valence shell) are the ones that particpate in bonding. An electron shell diagram shows the arrangment of electrons in shells surrounding the nucleus. The diagram at the right shows the electron shell diagram for the element Calcium.
For simplicity sake, it is common to display only the outer shell electrons since these are the electrons that are involved in bonding. In this exercise, the outer shell electrons of two main group elements are shown. You will have to predict what type of bonding would most likely occur between these two elements and why such bonding will occur. Finally, you will have to identify two example elements that match the electron shell diagram and predicted bond type. Use the periodic table to assist with your answers.
Reason for Predicted Bond Type:
Identity of Elements A and B:
The outer shell electrons for two elements are shown. Predict the type of bond most likely to form between them. Identify the reason for your prediction. Finally, which pair of elements match the diagrams and predicted bond type?