Highly Recommended Like all our Science Reasoning Center activities, the completion of the Kepler's Laws activity requires that a student use provided information about a phenomenon, experiment, or data presentation to answer questions. This information is accessible within the activity and can be easily enlarged by tapping on the graphics of the Asset panel on the right-side of the interactive area.

### The Standards

This NGSS-inspired Kepler's Laws task consists of four activities. Each activity involves a different type of skill or understanding. Collectively, these four activities were designed to address the following NGSS performance expectation:

HS-ESSS1-4:
Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system.

As a whole, the questions in this task address a wide collection of disciplinary core idea (DCI), crosscutting concepts (CCC), and science and engineering practices (SEP). There are 32 questions organized into 10 question Groups and spread across the four activities. Each question is either a 2D or (preferrably) a 3D question. That is, the task of answering the question requires that the student utilize at least two of the three dimensions of the NGSS science standards - a DCI, a CCC, and/or an SEP.

The following DCI, SEPs, and CCCs are addressed at some point within Kepler's Laws:

DCI:  ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system.

SEP 2.3:  Developing and Using Models
Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationship between systems or between components of a system.

SEP 5.3: Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking
Use mathematical or computational representations of phenomena to describe explanations.

SEP 6.1:  Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Make a qualitative claim regarding the relationship between variables.

CCC 3.2:  Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).

CCC 2.3:  Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships can be predicted for complex natural systems.

Here is our NGSS-based analysis of each individual activity of the Kepler's Laws Science Reasoning task. The core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices that we reference in our analysis are numbered for convenience. You can cross-reference the specific notations that we have used with the listings found on the following pages:

#### Part 1: Orbits

This activity consists of 12 forced-choice questions organized into three Question Groups. Students must show expertise on each Question Group before being rewarded the trophy for this activity.

NGSS Claim StatementUse a model to predict the effects of a change in one variable on another for objects that travel in elliptical orbits.

 Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s) Earth and the Solar System ESS1.B Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system. Developing and Using Models SEP 2.3 Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationship between systems or between components of a system. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity CCC 3.2 Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).

#### Part 2: Satellites in Orbit

This activity consists of 19 forced-choice questions organized into five Question Groups. Students must show expertise on each Question Group before being rewarded the trophy for this activity.

NGSS Claim StatementUse mathematical thinking to predict the effects of a change in one variable on another for objects that travel in elliptical orbits.

 Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s) Earth and the Solar System ESS1.B Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system. Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking  SEP 5.3 Use mathematical or computational representations of phenomena to describe explanations. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity CCC 3.2 Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).

#### Part 3: Kepler's Third Law

This activity consists of a four-row table with three missing cell values; numerical values are randomized. Students must perform calculations and accurately complete the table before being rewarded the trophy for this activity. Feedback to students inputted values is immediate (once the Check Answers button is used) and they will have opportunity to correct wrong inputted values.

NGSS Claim StatementUse a model to predict the effects of a change in one variable on another for objects that travel in elliptical orbits.

 Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s) Earth and the Solar System ESS1.B Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system. Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking SEP 5.2 Use mathematical or computational representations of phenomena to describe explanations. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity  CCC 3.2 Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).

#### Part 4: Time To Orbit

This activity consists of short paragraph with six missing phrases. Students must complete the paragraph by selecting the proper phrases for each blank from two to four possible options. Feedback is immediate and unlimited attempts are allowed. Once accurately completed, students are rewarded the trophy for this activity.

NGSS Claim StatementUse a model to predict the effects of a change in one variable on another for objects that travel in elliptical orbits.

 Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s) Earth and the Solar System ESS1.B Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP 6.1 Make a qualitative claim regarding the relationship between variables. Cause and Effect CCC 2.3 Cause and effect relationships can be predicted for complex natural systems.

Complementary and Similar Resources
The following resources at The Physics Classroom website complement the Kepler's Laws Science Reasoning Activity. Teachers may find them useful for supporting students and/or as components of lesson plans and unit plans.

Physics Classroom Tutorial, Circular and Satellite Motion Chapter: Kepler's Three Laws

Physics Video Tutorial, Circular and Satellite Motion: Kepler's Three Laws

Physics Video Tutorial, Circular and Satellite Motion: Satellite Motion Math

Physics Interactives, Circular Motion and Gravitation: Orbital Motion Simulation

Minds On Physics, Circular Motion and Gravitation Module, Mission CG10: Kepler's Laws

The Calculator Pad, Circular Motion Chapter, Problem Sets CG16 - CG18