About The Periodic Table, Elements, and Their Bonds


Highly Recommended
Like all our Science Reasoning Center activities, the completion of The Periodic Table, Elements, and Their Bonds activity requires that a student use provided information about a phenomenon, experiment, or data presentation to answer questions. This information is accessible by tapping on the small thumbnails found on the bottom right of every question. For this particular Science Reasoning Center activity, the information that is required to answer the question is either given in the specific question or involves use of The Periodic Table. As is the case for most topics in Chemistry, we recommend that students have ready access to a Periodic Table as they proceed through this activity.




The Standards
The Periodic Table, Elements, and Their Bonds focuses on the relationship between the location of an element on the Periodic Table and its tendency to form an ionic, covalent, or metallic bond with other elements on the table. The activity addresses the HS-PS1-1 Performance Expectation of the Next Generation Science Standards.

This NGSS-inspired task consists of four parts. Each part involves a different type of skill or understanding. Collectively, the four parts were designed to address the following NGSS performance expectation:


HS-PS1-1:
Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.


As a whole, the questions in this task address a wide collection of disciplinary core idea (DCI), crosscutting concepts (CCC), and science and engineering practices (SEP). There are 44 multi-part questions organized into 13 Question Groups and spread across the four activities. Each question is either a 2D or (preferrably) a 3D question. That is, the task of answering the question requires that the student utilize at least two of the three dimensions of the NGSS science standards - a DCI, a CCC, and/or an SEP.



The following DCI, SEPs, and CCCs are addressed at some point within The Periodic Table, Elements, and Their Bonds:

DCI:  PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.


 
SEP 2.3:  Developing and Using Models
Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.


SEP 2.6:  Developing and Using Models
Develop and/or use a model (including mathematical and computational) to generate data to support explanations, predict phenomena, analyze systems, and/or solve problems.


SEP 6.3:  Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.



CCC 1.1: Patterns
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.


CCC 2.3: Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.


CCC 6.2: Structure and Function
The functions and properties of natural and designed objects and systems can be inferred from their overall structure, the way their components are shaped and used, and the molecular substructures of its various materials.

 

 


Here is our NGSS-based analysis of each individual activity of The Periodic Table, Elements, and Their Bonds Science Reasoning task. The core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices that we reference in our analysis are numbered for convenience. You can cross-reference the specific notations that we have used with the listings found on the following pages:  
Disclaimer: The standards are not our original work. We are simply including them here for convenience (and because we have referenced the by number). The standards are the property of the Next Generation Science Standards.
 

Part 1: Reactivity Patterns of Elements

This activity consists of 16 forced-choice questions organized into four Question Groups. Students a formula for a binary ionic compound. They are presented a second compound with the same general formula but containing an unknown element X. They must identify the elemental symbol of X and state the reason that supports their answers. A Periodic Table hilighting the location of all possible elements is also provided. Students earn the Trophy for this activity once they demonstrate mastery on all four Question Groups. 


NGSS Claim Statement: Use the grouping of elements on the Periodic Table to identify the patterns by which atoms combine to form compounds in order to predict the formula of a binary ionic compound.

 
Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s)
Structure and Properties of Matter
PS1.A
Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
 

The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.

Developing and Using Models
SEP 2.3

Uuse a model based on evidence to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

SEP 2.6
Use a model to predict phenomena.
Patterns
CCC 1.1
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
 



 

Part 2: Identifying Bond Types

This activity consists of 12 forced-choice questions organized into four Question Groups. Students are presented with three pairs of elements. A Periodic Table hilighting their location is also provided. Students must indicate the types of bonds - ionic, covalent, or metallic - formed between the elements and identify the reason for their prediction. They must also identify a description of the nature of such a bond based on electrical interactions. Students earn the Trophy for this activity once they demonstrate mastery on all four Question Groups. 

NGSS Claim StatementUse the location of elements on the Periodic Table to predict the type of bonds formed between elements and to describe the nature of the bond in terms of the electrical interactions between charges.

 
Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s)
Structure and Properties of Matter
PS1.A
Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
 

The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.

Developing and Using Models
SEP 2.3

Uuse a model based on evidence to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

SEP 2.6
Use a model to predict phenomena.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
SEP 6.3

Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena.
Patterns
CCC 1.1
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.

Cause and Effect
CCC 2.3

Cause and effect relationships can be predicted for complex natural systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.
 



 

Part 3: Outer Shell Electrons

This activity consists of 16 forced-choice questions organized into four Question Groups. Students are presented diagrams displaying thee outer shell electrons of two unknown elements. Students must predict the type of bond - ionic, covalent, or metallic - formed between the two elements and identify the reason for their prediction. Given possible pairs, they must identify the pair of elements that is consistent with the electron shell diagram and the predicted bond type. A periodic table is provided. Students earn the Trophy for this activity once they demonstrate mastery on all four Question Groups. 

NGSS Claim Statement: To use the configuration of outer shell electrons as a predictor of the types of bonds formed between elements and to relate such shell diagrams to the identify of the element.

 
Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s)
Structure and Properties of Matter
PS1.A
Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
 

The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.

.
Developing and Using Models
SEP 2.3

Uuse a model based on evidence to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

SEP 2.6
Use a model to predict phenomena.
Patterns
CCC 1.1
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.

Cause and Effect
CCC 2.3

Cause and effect relationships can be predicted for complex natural systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.

Structure and Function
CCC 6.2

The properties of natural systems can be inferred from their overall structure, the way their components are shaped and used.
 



 

Part 4: Describing Elements and Their Bonds

This activity is a paragraph completion activity. Students are provided a paragraph with missing words and phrases; they must tap on the fields to select the appropriate word or phrase from a collection of options. Students earn the Trophy for this activity once all the missing words and phrases have been accurately identified. 

NGSS Claim Statement: To describe how the location of two elements on the periodic table is a predictor of the bond type and to relate the general attraction of atoms to the electrical substructure of the atom.

 
Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s)
Structure and Properties of Matter
PS1.A
Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
 

The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.

Developing and Using Models
SEP 2.3

Uuse a model based on evidence to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

SEP 2.6
Use a model to predict phenomena.
Patterns
CCC 1.1
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.

Cause and Effect
CCC 2.3

Cause and effect relationships can be predicted for complex natural systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.
 




 








Complementary and Similar Resources

The following resources at The Physics Classroom website complement The Periodic Table, Elements, and Their Bonds Science Reasoning Activity. Teachers may find them useful for supporting students and/or as components of lesson plans and unit plans.

Concept Builders, Chemistry - Properties of Matter: Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids

Concept Builders, Chemistry - Properties of Matter: Subatomic Particles

Concept Builders, Chemistry - Atomic and Molecular Models: Complete Electron Configuration

Concept Builders, Chemistry - Atomic and Molecular Models: Periodic Table Battleship

Concept Builders, Chemistry - Atomic and Molecular Models: Periodic Trends

Concept Builders, Chemistry - Atomic and Molecular Models: Ionic Bonding