Sound and Music Review

Navigate to Answers for:

Questions #1-#9
Questions #10-#52
Questions #53-#64
Questions #65-#75

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

Part B: Multiple Choice

10. What type of wave is produced when the particles of the medium are vibrating to and fro in the same direction of wave propagation?

a. longitudinal wave.

b. sound wave.

c. standing wave.

d. transverse wave.


Answer: A

This is the definition of a longitudinal wave. A longitudinal wave is a wave in which particles of the medium vibrate to and fro in a direction parallel to the direction of energy transport.


 

Useful Web Links

Categories of Waves
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

11. When the particles of a medium are vibrating at right angles to the direction of energy transport, the type of wave is described as a _____ wave.

a. longitudinal

b. sound

c. standing

d. transverse

Answer: D

This is the definition of a transverse wave. A transverse wave is a wave in which particles of the medium vibrate to and fro in a direction perpendicular to the direction of energy transport.


 

Useful Web Links

Categories of Waves
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

12. A transverse wave is traveling through a medium. See diagram below. The particles of the medium are moving.

a. parallel to the line joining AD.

b. along the line joining CI.

c. perpendicular to the line joining AD.

d. at various angles to the line CI.

e. along the curve CAEJGBI.

 

Answer: A

In transverse waves, particles of the medium vibrate to and fro in a direction perpendicular to the direction of energy transport. In this case, that would be parallel to the line AD.


 

Useful Web Links

Categories of Waves
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

13. If the energy in a longitudinal wave travels from south to north, the particles of the medium ____.

a. move from north to south, only.

b. vibrate both north and south.

c. move from east to west, only.

d. vibrate both east and west.


Answer: B

In longitudinal waves, particles of the medium vibrate to and from in a direction parallel to the direction of energy transport. If the particles only moved north and not back south, then the particles would be permanently displaced from their rest position; this is not wavelike.



 

Useful Web Links

Categories of Waves
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

14. The main factor which effects the speed of a sound wave is the ____.

a. amplitude of the sound wave

b. intensity of the sound wave

c. loudness of the sound wave

d. properties of the medium

e. pitch of the sound wave

 

Answer: D

The speed of a wave is dependent upon the properties of the medium and not the properties of the wave.


 

Useful Web Links

The Speed of a Wave
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

15.  As a wave travels into a medium in which its speed increases, its wavelength ____.

a. decreases

b. increases

c. remains the same


Answer: B

As a wave crosses a boundary into a new medium, its speed and wavelength change while its frequency remains the same. If the speed increases, then the wavelength must increase as well in order to maintain the same frequency.



 

Useful Web Links

The Wave Equation
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

16. As a wave passes across a boundary into a new medium, which characteristic of the wave would NOT change?

a. speed

b. frequency

c. wavelength


Answer: B

As a wave crosses a boundary into a new medium, its speed and wavelength change while its frequency remains the same. This is true of all waves as they pass from one medium to another medium.


 

Useful Web Links

The Speed of a Wave
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

17. The ____ is defined as the number of cycles of a periodic wave occurring per unit time.

a. wavelength

b. period

c. amplitude

d. frequency


Answer: D

This is a basic definition which you should know and be able to apply.



 

Useful Web Links

Frequency and Period of a Wave
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

18. Many wave properties are dependent upon other wave properties. Yet, one wave property is independent of all other wave properties. Which one of the following properties of a wave is independent of all the others?

a. wavelength

b. frequency

c. period

d. velocity

 

Answer: D

The speed (or velocity) of a wave is dependent upon the properties of the medium through which it moves, not upon the properties of the wave itself.



 

Useful Web Links

The Speed of a Wave
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

19. Consider the motion of waves in a wire. Waves will travel fastest in a ____ wire.

a. tight and heavy

b. tight and light

c. loose and heavy

d. loose and light


Answer: B

The speed of a wave in a wire is given by the equation

v = SQRT (Ftens/mu)

where Ftens is the tension of the wire and a measure of how tight it is pulled and mu is the linear density of the wire and a measure of how light it is on a per meter basis. Tighter wires allow for faster speeds. Light wires allow for faster speeds.



 

Useful Web Links

Frequency and Period of a Wave
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

20. TRUE or FALSE:

The SI unit for frequency is hertz.

a. True

 

b. False

 

Answer: A

Know this like the back of your hand (assuming you know the back of your hand well).



 

Useful Web Links

Frequency and Period of a Wave
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

21. TRUE or FALSE:

Doubling the frequency of a sound source doubles the speed of the sound waves which it produces.

a. True

 

b. False

 

Answer: B

Don't be fooled. Wave speed may equal frequency*wavelength. Yet doubling the frequency only halves the wavelength; wave speed remains the same. To change the wave speed, the medium would have to be changed.



 

Useful Web Links

The Wave Equation
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 22. A sound wave has a wavelength of 3.0 m. The distance between the center of a compression and the center of the next adjacent refraction is ____.

a. 0.75 m.

b. 1.5 m.

c. 3.0 m.

d. 6.0 m.

e. impossible to calculate without knowing frequency.


Answer: B

The wavelength of a wave is measured as the distance between any two corresponding points on adjacent wave. For a sound wave, that would be from compression to the next adjacent compression. If that distance is 3.0 meters, then the distance from compression to the next adjacent rarefaction is 1.5 m.



 

Useful Web Links

Sound is a Pressure Wave
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

23.  Which one of the following factors determines the pitch of a sound?

a. The amplitude of the sound wave

b. The distance of the sound wave from the source

c. The frequency of the sound wave

d. The phase of different parts of the sound wave

e. The speed of the sound wave

Answer: C

The pitch of a sound wave is related to the frequency of the sound wave.


 

Useful Web Links

Pitch and Frequency
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

24. A certain note is produced when a person blows air into an organ pipe. The manner in which one blows on a organ pipe (or any pipe) will effect the characteristics of the sound which is produced. If the person blows slightly harder, the most probable change will be that the sound wave will increase in ____.

a. amplitude

b. frequency

c. pitch

d. speed

e. wavelength


Answer: A

If you put more energy into the wave - i.e., blow harder - then the amplitude of the waves will be greater. Energy and amplitude are related.



 

Useful Web Links

Intensity and the Decibel Scale
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

25. A vibrating object with a frequency of 200 Hz produces sound which travels through air at 360 m/s. The number of meters separating the adjacent compressions in the sound wave is ____.

a. 0.90

b. 1.8

c. 3.6

d. 7.2

e. 200


Answer: B

Let w=wavelength; then v = w*f. In this problem, it is given that v=360 m/s and f = 200 Hz. Substitution and algebra yields w = v/f = 1.8 m. The question asks for the wavelength - i.e., the distance between adjacent compressions.



 

Useful Web Links

The Anatomy of a Wave | The Wave Equation
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

26. Consider the diagram below of several circular waves created at various times and locations. The diagram illustrates ____.

a. interference

b. diffraction

c. the Doppler effect.

d. polarization


Answer: C

The Doppler effect or Doppler shift occurs when a source of waves is moving with respect to an observer. The observer observes a different frequency of waves than that emitted by the source. This is due to the fact that the waves are compressed together into less space in the direction in which the source is heading.



 

Useful Web Links

The Doppler Effect
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

27. In the diagram above, a person positioned at point A would perceive __________ frequency as the person positioned at point B.

a. a higher

b. a lower

c. the same


Answer: A

The Doppler effect or Doppler shift occurs when a source of waves is moving with respect to an observer. The observer observes a different frequency of waves than that emitted by the source. If the source and observer are approaching, then the observed frequency is higher than the emitted frequency. If the source and observer are moving away from each other, the observer observes a lower frequency than the emitted frequency.



 

Useful Web Links

The Doppler Effect
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

28. A girl moves away from a source of sound at a constant speed. Compared to the frequency of the sound wave produced by the source, the frequency of the sound wave heard by the girl is ____.

a. lower.

b. higher.

c. the same.


Answer: A

The Doppler effect or Doppler shift occurs when a source of waves is moving with respect to an observer. The observer observes a different frequency of waves than that emitted by the source. If the source and observer are moving away, then the observed frequency is lower than the emitted frequency.



 

Useful Web Links

The Doppler Effect and Shock Waves
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

29. An earth-based receiver is detecting electromagnetic waves from a source in outer space. If the frequency of the waves are observed to be increasing, then the distance between the source and the earth is probably ____.

a. decreasing.

b. increasing.

c. remaining the same.


Answer: A

The Doppler effect or Doppler shift occurs when a source of waves is moving with respect to an observer. The observer observes a different frequency of waves than that emitted by the source. If the source and observer are approaching, then the observed frequency is higher than the emitted frequency. If the source and observer are approaching, then the distance between them is decreasing.



 

Useful Web Links

The Doppler Effect and Shock Waves
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

30. As two or more waves pass simultaneously through the same region, ____ can occur.

a. refraction

b. diffraction

c. interference

d. reflection


Answer: C

Interference is the meeting of two or more waves when passing along the same medium - a basic definition which you should know and be able to apply.



 

Useful Web Links

Interference of Waves
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

31. TRUE or FALSE:

If two crests meet while passing through the same medium, then constructive interference occurs.

a. True

b. False


Answer: A

Yes! Or when a trough meets a trough or whenever two waves displaced in the same direction - both up or both down - meet.



 

Useful Web Links

Interference of Waves
 

  [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

32. A node is a point along a medium where there is always ____.


a. a crest meeting a crest

b. a trough meeting a trough

c. constructive interference

d. destructive interference

e. a double rarefaction.

 

Answer: D

A node is a point along the medium of no displacement. The point is not displaced because destructive interference occurs at this point.



 

Useful Web Links

Nodes and Anti-nodes
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

33. TRUE or FALSE:

It is possible that one vibrating object can set another object into vibration if the natural frequencies of the two objects are the same.

a. True

b. False


Answer: A

Yes! This is known as resonance. Resonance occurs when a vibrating object forces another object into vibration at the same natural frequency. A basic definition of a commonly discussed phenomenon.



 

Useful Web Links

Resonance
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

34. An object is vibrating at its natural frequency. Repeated and periodic vibrations of the same natural frequency impinge upon the vibrating object and the amplitude of its vibrations are observed to increase. This phenomenon is known as ____.

a. beats

b. fundamental

c. interference

d. overtone

e. resonance


Answer: E

Resonance occurs when a vibrating object forces another object into vibration at the same natural frequency and thus increase the amplitude of its vibrations. A basic definition of a commonly discussed phenomenon.



 

Useful Web Links

Resonance
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

35. A standing wave experiment is performed to determine the speed of waves in a rope. The standing wave pattern shown below is established in the rope. The rope makes 90.0 complete vibrational cycles in exactly one minute. The speed of the waves is ____ m/s.

a. 3.0

b. 6.0

c. 180

d. 360

e. 540


Answer: B

Ninety vibrations in 60.0 seconds means a frequency of 1.50 Hz. The diagram shows 1.5 waves in 6.0-meters of rope; thus, the wavelength (w) is 4 meters. Now use the equation v=f*w to calculate the speed of the wave. Proper substitution yields 6.0 m/s.




 

Useful Web Links

The Wave Equation
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

36. Standing waves are produced in a wire by vibrating one end at a frequency of 100. Hz. The distance between the 2nd and the 5th nodes is 60.0 cm. The wavelength of the original traveling wave is ____ cm.


a. 50.0

b. 40.0

c. 30.0

d. 20.0

e. 15.0


Answer: B

The frequency is given as 100. Hz and the wavelength can be found from the other givens. The distance between adjacent nodes is one-half a wavelength; thus the 60.0-cm distance from 2nd to 5th node is 1.50 wavelengths. For this reason, the wavelength is 40.0 cm.



 

Useful Web Links

Mathematics of Standing Waves

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

37. Consider the standing wave pattern shown below. A wave generated at the left end of the medium undergoes reflection at the fixed end on the right side of the medium. The number of antinodes in the diagram is

 

a. 3.0

b. 5.0

c. 6.0

d. 7.0

e. 12


Answer: C

An antinode is a point on the medium which oscillates from a large + to a large - displacement. Count the number of these points - there are 6 - but do not count them twice.



 

Useful Web Links

Nodes and Anti-nodes

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

38. The standing wave pattern in the diagram above is representative of the ____ harmonic.

a. third

b. fifth

c. sixth

d. seventh

e. twelfth


Answer: C

If there are six antinodes in the standing wave pattern, then it is the sixth harmonic.



 

Useful Web Links

Harmonics and Patterns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

39. The distance between successive nodes in any standing wave pattern is equivalent to ____ wavelengths.

a. 1/4

b. 1/2

c. 3/4

d. 1

e. 2.


Answer: B

Draw a standing wave pattern or look at one which is already drawn; note that the nodes are positioned one-half of a wavelength apart. This is true for guitar strings and for both closed-end and open-end resonance tubes.



 

Useful Web Links

Nodes and Anti-nodes
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

40. A vibrating tuning fork is held above a closed-end air column, forcing the air into resonance. If the sound waves created by the tuning fork have a wavelength of W, then the length of the air column could NOT be ____.

a. 1/4 W

b. 2/4 W

c. 3/4 W

d. 5/4 W

e. 7/4 W


Answer: B

Review your diagrams for the standing wave patterns in closed end air columns; note that resonance occurs when the length of the air column is 1/4, 3/4, 5/4, 7/4, ... of a wavelength. Because these possible resonant lengths are characterized by an odd-numbered numerator, it is said that closed-end air columns only produce odd harmonics.



 

Useful Web Links

Closed-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

41. TRUE or FALSE:

A vibrating tuning fork is held above an air column, forcing the air into resonance. The length of the air column is adjusted to obtain various resonances. The sound waves created by the tuning fork have a wavelength of W.  The difference between the successive lengths of the air column at which resonance occurs is 1/2 W.

a. True

b. False


Answer: A

True! Observe the standing wave patterns and the length-wavelength relationships which we have discussed for both open- and closed-end tubes. In each case, resonance occurs at lengths of tubes which are separated by one-half wavelength; e.g., Closed: .25*W, .75*wW 1.25*W, 1.75*W... Open: .5*W, 1.0*W, 1.5*W, 2.0*W, ...



 

Useful Web Links

Open-End Air Columns | Closed-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

42. TRUE or FALSE:

An organ pipe which is closed at one end will resonate if its length is equal to one-half of the wavelength of the sound in the pipe.

a. True

b. False


Answer: B

It will resonate if the length is equal to the one-fourth (or three-fourths, or five-fourths or ...) the wavelength of the sound wave.



 

Useful Web Links

Closed-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

43. A 20.0-cm long pipe is covered at one end in order to create a closed-end air column. A vibrating tuning fork is held near its open end, forcing the air to vibrate in its first harmonic. The wavelength of the standing wave pattern is ____.

a. 5.00 cm

b. 10.0 cm

c. 20.0 cm

d. 40.0 cm

e. 80.0 cm


Answer: E

This is a closed-end air column. If you draw the standing wave pattern for the first harmonic, you will notice that the wavelength is four times the length of the air column. Thus take the length of 20.0 cm and multiply by 4.



 

Useful Web Links

Closed-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

44. A stretched string vibrates with a fundamental frequency of 100. Hz. The frequency of the second harmonic is ____.

a. 25.0 Hz

b. 50.0 Hz

c. 100. Hz

d. 200. Hz

e. 400. Hz


Answer: D

The frequency of the nth harmonic is n times the frequency of the first harmonic where n is an integer. Thus, f2 = 2*f1 = 2*100. Hz = 200. Hz.



 

Useful Web Links

Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

45. A 40.-cm long plastic tube is open at both ends and resonating in its first harmonic. The wavelength of the sound which will produce this resonance is ____.

a. 10. cm

b. 20. cm

c. 40. cm

d. 80. cm

e. 160 cm


Answer: D

For an open-end air column, the length of the column is 0.5*wavelength. This becomes evident after drawing the standing wave pattern for this harmonic. Then, plug in 40. cm for length and calculate the wavelength.



 

Useful Web Links

Open-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

46. The diagrams below represent four different standing wave patterns in air columns of the same length. Which of the columns is/are vibrating at its/their fundamental frequency? Include all that apply.


Answer: CD

The fundamental frequency is the lowest possible frequency for that instrument, and thus the longest possible wavelength. For open tubes, there would be anti-nodes on each end and a node in the middle. For closed end tubes, there would be a node on the closed end, an anti-node on the open end, and nothing in the middle. Diagram C is the third harmonic for a closed end tube and diagram D is the second harmonic for an open-end tube.


 

Useful Web Links

Open-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

47. The diagrams above (Question #46) represent four different standing wave patterns in air columns of equal length. Which of the columns will produce the note having the highest pitch?

a. A

b. B

c. C

d. D

e. All column produce notes having the same pitch


Answer: D

Just look at the wave patterns and notice that the shortest wavelength is in diagram D and so it must have the highest frequency or pitch.



 

Useful Web Links

Open-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

48. An air column closed at one end filled with air resonates with a 200.-Hz tuning fork. The resonant length corresponding to the first harmonic is 42.5 cm. The speed of the sound must be ____.

a. 85.0 m/s

b. 170. m/s

c. 340. m/s

d. 470. m/s

e. 940 m/s


Answer: C

Draw the standing wave pattern for the first harmonic of a closed-end tube to assist with the length-wavelength relation. Then, L=0.425 m so w=1.70 m. Since f is given as 200. Hz, the speed can be calculated as f*w or 200. Hz*1.7 m. The speed of sound is 340 m/s.



 

Useful Web Links

Closed-End Air Columns
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

49.TRUE or FALSE:

A violinist plays a note whose fundamental frequency is 220 Hz. The third harmonic of that note is 800 Hz.

a. True

b. False


Answer: B

The frequency of the nth harmonic is n times the frequency of the first harmonic where n is an integer. Thus, f3 = 3*f1 = 3*220 Hz = 660 Hz.


 

Useful Web Links

Guitar Strings
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

50. In order for two sound waves to produce audible beats, it is essential that the two waves have ____.

a. the same amplitude

b. the same frequency

c. the same number of overtones

d. slightly different amplitudes

e. slightly different frequencies

 

Answer: E

Beats occur whenever two sound sources emit sounds of slightly different frequencies. Perhaps you recall the demonstration in class with the two tuning forks of slightly different frequencies.



 

Useful Web Links

Interference and Beats
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

 51. TRUE or FALSE:

Two tuning forks with frequencies of 256 Hz and 258 Hz are sounded at the same time. Beats are observed; 2 beats will be heard in 2 s.

a. True

b. False


Answer: B

Beats occur whenever two sound sources emit sounds of slightly different frequencies. The beat frequency is just the difference in frequency of the two sources. In this case, the beat frequency would be 2.0 Hz, which means that 2 beats would be heard every 1 second or 4 beats every 2 seconds.



 

Useful Web Links

Interference and Beats
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 

52. A tuning fork of frequency 384 Hz is sounded at the same time as a guitar string. Beats are observed; exactly 30 beats are heard in 10.0 s. The frequency of the string in hertz is ____.

a. 38.4

b. 354 or 414

c. 369 or 399

d. 374 or 394

e. 381 or 387


Answer: E

Beats occur whenever two sound sources emit sounds of slightly different frequencies. The beat frequency is just the difference in frequency of the two sources. In this case, the beat frequency is given as 3.00 Hz, which means that the second source must have a frequency of either 3.00 Hz above or 3.00 Hz below the first source - either 381 Hz or 387 Hz.



 

Useful Web Links

Interference and Beats
 

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

 
 

 

Navigate to Answers for:

[ Questions #1-#9 | Questions #10-#52 | Questions #53-#64 | Questions #65-#75 ]

 [ #10 | #11 | #12 | #13 | #14 | #15 | #16 | #17 | #18 | #19 | #20 | #21 | #22 | #23 | #24 | #25 | #26 | #27 | #28 | #29 | #30 | #31 | #32 | #33 | #34 | #35 | #36 | #37 | #38 | #39 | #40 | #41 | #42 | #43 | #44 | #45 | #46 | #47 | #48 | #49 | #50 | #51 | #52 ]

Navigate to Answers for:

Questions #1-#9
Questions #10-#52
Questions #53-#64
Questions #65-#75