## Vectors and Newton's Laws Notebook Labs

The following items should be in the Vectors and Newton's Laws portion of your notebook. They should be clearly organized and easy to find. Use an organizational system and label all work. Each lab will be graded separately.

### VF1. It's a Breeze Lab

**Question:**

What is the mathematical relationship between the effective force exerted by a fan upon a fan cart and the angle between the fan cart and the fan's blowing direction?

**Purpose:**

To determine the mathematical relationship between the effective force exerted by a fan upon a fan cart and the angle between the fan cart and the fan's blowing direction.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of the experimental setup with the angle Q clearly defined on the diagram. Collected data should be organized using a table format. Calculations or a graph or some other method of data analysis should be used to determine the mathematical equation; the method of analysis should be documented. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose. The Discussion of Results should explain the logic which leads from the data to the conclusion.

### VF2. Getting Hung Up by Tension Lab

**Question:**

What is the result of conducting a force analysis on an object at equilibrium?

**Purpose:**

To conduct three different equilibrium analyses in order to determine the net force upon three different objects.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of the three situations being analyzed with the magnitude and direction of all forces clearly stated on the diagram; a labeling convention (e.g., A= , B= , C= , etc.) should be used to distinguish between the forces. Calculations and analysis should be clearly shown. A net force should be determined. The Conclusion/Discussion should identify the calculated net force for the three situations and should include an error analysis for each situation.

### VF3. Sign Hanging Lab

**Question:**

How does the measured tension in the string supporting a sign compare to the theoretically predicted value?

**Purpose:**

To compare the measured tension in the string supporting a sign to the tension which would be theoretically predicted based on the mass of the sign and the angle the two strings make with the horizontal.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of the sign and supporting strings; strategic measurements should be recorded on the diagram. Calculations of the theoretically predicted tension should be clearly shown in an organized fashion beginning with a *force triangle* . The Conclusion/Discussion should answer the question posed in the Purpose and include an error analysis with a percent difference calculation.

### VF4. Maximum Load Lab

**Question:**

What is the maximum load which a light string can support when assuming a v-shaped orientation and supported on its ends at two points? How does the measured value compare to the predicted value?

**Purpose:**

To determine the maximum load which a light string could support when assuming a v-shaped orientation and supported on its ends at two fixed points and to compare the maximum value to the predicted value based on the string's breaking strength.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. Data section should include a diagram of the experimental setup and a representation of how the measurements of maximum load was determined. Results of several trials are documented and an average value is determined; outliers are indicated. Calculations of the theoretically predicted value is included; analysis is thoroughly documented beginning with a force triangle. The Conclusion/Discussion answers the question posed in the Purpose. An error analysis along with a percent difference calculation is included in the discussion.

### VF5. Science Friction Adventure Lab

**Question:**

What is the coefficient of friction for a wood block on a metal track and what is the maximum angle at which the track can be inclined before the block accelerates from rest? How are these two values related?

**Purpose:**

To determine the coefficient of static friction for a wooden block on a metal track and to relate this coefficient to the maximum angle at which the track can be inclined before the block accelerates from rest.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data should section include a table of data capable of determining the coefficient of friction and an analysis of the data in order to determine the coefficient of static friction. The Data should also include the result of several trial in which the threshold angle at which acceleration from rest occurs for the wood block on the incline. Outliers should be identified and an average value reported. The Conclusion should answer the two questions posed in the Purpose. The Discussion of Results should include a discussion of the expected threshold angle based on the coefficient of friction; the reasoning for the expectation should be clearly explained. An error analysis with a percent difference should also be included.

### VF6. Inclined Plane Lab

**Question:**

How is the weight of an object mathematically related to the component of the weight directed parallel to the inclined plane?

**Purpose:**

To determine the mathematical equation which relates the weight of an object to the component of the weight which is directed parallel to an inclined plane.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of the inclined plane to which you were assigned, with measurements included on the diagram. Class data for the various incline angles should be recorded. Some form of analysis leading up to an equation should be documented in the Data section. The Conclusion should state the mathematical relationship in both words and an equation. The Discussion of Results should thoroughly explain the logical connection between the collected data and the conclusion.

### VF7. On a Roll Challenge Lab

**Question:**

What is the speed of a cart after rolling from rest a given distance along an inclined plane with a specified angle? How does it relate to the predicted speed?

**Purpose:**

To use Newton's laws, vectors and motion equations to predict the speed of a cart near the bottom of a hill and to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction with a measurement.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of the inclined plane with assigned values of mass and distance and the appropriate x-y measurements needed to determine the incline angle. A free-body diagram and NewtonÃ•s law analysis is included in an effort to determine the predicted speed. All work is clear, labeled and documented. A photogate time and flag width should be included along with a calculation of the measured speed. The Conclusion reports the predicted and the measured speed. The Discussion of Results should include an error analysis along with a percent error calculation.

### VF8. Modified Atwood's Machine Lab

**Question:**

What is the mathematical equation relating the final velocity (after accelerating 1.00 m from rest) of a low-friction cart (or air track glider) to the amount of hanging mass on a modified Atwood's machine?

**Purpose:**

To experimentally derive an equation relating the final velocity (after accelerating 1.00 m from rest) of a low-friction cart (or air track glider) to the amount of hanging mass for a modified Atwood's machine.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. Data section should include a data table with several trials for varying mass (hanging) and the corresponding values for the final velocity. The results of a power or linear regression analysis should be conducted and statistical information reported. The development of the equation should be well-documented. The Conclusion should (as always) respond to the question raised in the Purpose. The Discussion of Results should include an error analysis. As part of the analysis, theoretical considerations (free-body diagram, NewtonÃ•s laws analysis, kinematics) which could provide a prediction of the mathematical equation should be discussed. The equation reported in the Conclusion section should be compared to a theoretically-derived equation.