### Chemistry

What?!? Chemistry? At The Physics Classroom?

Yes. Why not? We're not breaking any laws ... it's perfectly legal. The Concept Builders you see below are  interactive questioning modules that present learners with carefully crafted questions that target various aspects of a concept. If you're a frequent visitor to our website, you likely have used some of our Physics Concept Builders. Each Concept Builder focuses the learner's attention upon a discrete learning outcome. Questions target that outcome from a variety of angles using multiple difficulty levels or varying activities. If you're a chemistry teacher visiting our website for the first time, then welcome! We invite you to give one of our Chemistry Concept Builders a try and let us know what you think.

Measurement and Numbers

Learning Goal: To identify common units of measurement, to read an instrument to the proper number of significant digits, and to convert between standard and scientific notation.

Significant Digits and Measurement

Learning Goal: To understand the concept of significant digits and to use such understanding to make and process such measurements made from lab equipment.

Metric System

Learning Goal: To generate a comfort with the use of the metric system in order to convert simple quantities and compare given quantities.

Metric Estimation

Learning Goal: To use an understanding of metric units of length, mass, and volume to identify a best estimate of such quantities for a variety of common objects.

Metric Conversions

Learning Goal: To use an understanding of metric units and their Greek prefixes to perform conversions between a variety of metric units.

Classification of Matter

Learning Goal: To identify samples of matter as being pure substances or mixtures (homogenous or heterogeneous) and to distinguish between elements and compounds.

Name That Element

Learning Goal: To express a comfort with the organization of the periodic table, including concepts related to family names, periods, groups, metals, nonmetals, metalloids, atomic number, and atomic mass.

Chemical vs. Physical Properties

Learning Goal: To identify a stated property as being either a chemical or a physical property.

Learning Goal: To rank the density of three samples of matter based on information about the massiveness of its particles and the amount of space they take up.

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

Learning Goal: To identify the difference between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids and to be able to place an element into one of these categories.

Particles .. Words .. Formulas

Learning Goal: To associate the particle representation of a sample of matter with the proper verbal description and formulas.

Subatomic Particles

Learning Goal: To determine the atomic number, mass number, # of protons, # of neutrons, and the # of electrons for an atom or an ion of an element from an isotope symbol.

Isotopes

Learning Goal: To demonstrate understanding of the composition of an atom by constructing the isotopic symbol from information regarding the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Names to Formulas 1

Learning Goal: To use an understanding of formula writing to identify incorrectly written formulas.  (Includes binary ionic compounds only.)

Names to Formulas 2

Learning Goal: To use an understanding of formula writing to identify incorrectly written formulas.  (Includes binary molecular compounds, binary ionic compounds, and compounds containing polyatomic ions.)

Formulas and Atom Counting

Learning Goal: To identify the number of atoms of each element represented by a set of simple or complex formulas.

Balancing Chemical Equations

Learning Goal: To be able to use coefficients and an atom count to balance a chemical equation.

Chemical Reaction Types

Learning Goal: To be able to categorize chemical reactions based on their reaction type - such as synthesis, decomposition, combustion, single replacement, and double replacement.

Writing Balanced Chemical Equations

Learning Goal: To combine an understanding of reaction types, formula writing, and equation balancing in order to write a balanced chemical equation.

Precipitation Reactions

Learning Goal: To predict the precipitate that is produced when two aqueous solutions of ionic compounds are mixed and to represent the precipitation reaction by a net ionic equation.

Molar Mass

Learning Goal: To determine the molar mass if given the chemical formula of a compound.

Mole Conversions

Learning Goal: To mathematically relate the the number of moles of a compound to the number of molecules and to the mass in grams.

Stoichiometry: Relationships

Learning Goal: To use the coefficients of a balanced chemical equation and the molar masses of reactants and products to relate the quantities of reactants and products involved in a reaction.

Atomic Models

Learning Goal:  To identify the connection between experimental findings, conclusions, and models that are associated with atomic structure.

Quantum Mechanics

Learning Goal:  To identify the meaning of the four quantum numbers, the rules governing allowed and non-allowed quantum number values, and the characteristics of atomic orbitals.

Complete Electron Configurations

Learning Goal: To identify the complete electron configuration for a neutral atom or of an ion of any given element.

Periodic Trends

Learning Goal: To order elements based on the values of periodic properties such as atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity.

Ionic Bonding

Learning Goal: To identify the types of elements that undergo ionic bonding and to be able to describe the process that takes place when two elements form ionic bonds.

Lewis Structures

Learning Goal:  To identify correct and incorrect Lewis electron dot structures when given the formulas of molecular compounds.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Learning Goal:  To identify the Lewis electron dot diagram and the molecular shape of a variety of covalently-bonded molecules.

Which One Doesn't Belong? - Energy and Chemical Reactions

Learning Goal:  To interpret various representations of a thermochemical reaction and to identify which one is not consistent with the others.

Pressure Concepts

Learning Goal:  To be able to explain at the particle level the factors that effect gas pressure, to compare values of pressure expressed in different units, and to use manometer information to determine the pressure of a gas.

Pressure and Temperature

Learning Goal:  To use an understanding of the pressure-temperature relationship in order to predict how the value of pressure changes with changing temperature.

Volume and Temperature

Learning Goal:  To use an understanding of the volume-temperature relationship in order to predict how the value of volume changes with changing temperature.

Pressure and Volume

Learning Goal:  To use an understanding of the pressure-volume relationship in order to predict how the pressure of a gas changes with varying volume.

Dissociation

Learning Goal:  To be able to write the equation for the dissociation of an ionic compound in water and to use the equation to determine ion concentrations if given the concentration of the ionic compound.

Learning Goal:  To rank the relative molarity of three aqueous solutions based on the amount of solute, the amount of solvent, and the identity of the solute.

Molarity Calculations

Learning Goal:  To use molarity definition to calculate the molarity of a solution from knowledge of the amount of solute (in grams or moles) and the volume of the solution.

Which One Doesn't Belong? - Acid-Base Properties

Learning Goal:  To analyze a variety of properties of acids and bases in order to identify which property is not like the others.

Bronsted-Lowry Model of Acids and Bases

Learning Goal:  To use the Bronsted-Lowry model to determine the products of the dissociation of an acid or a base when dissolved in water.

pH and pOH

Learning Goal:  To mathematically relate the pH, pOH, [H3O+], and [OH-] for aqueous solutions of acids and bases.

Collision Model of Reaction Rates

Learning Goal:  To identify the variables that affect reaction rate and to explain the effects using the Collision Model of reaction rates.

The Equilibrium Concept

Learning Goal:  To identify the conditions that exist at equilibrium, to comprehend the meaning of he equilibrium concept (K), and to use the K value to predict the direction a reaction proceeds to reach equilibrium.

Equilibrium Constant Expression

Learning Goal:  To use the Law of Mass Action in order to identify the equilibrium constant expression for a given chemical equation.

Equilibrium Calculations

Learning Goal:  To use an equlibrium constant expression to determine the equilibrium constant value or the value of the concentration of a reactant or product at equilibrium.

Equilibrium ICE Tables

Learning Goal:  To learn how to set up an ICE table and then use it to relate initial concentrations of reactants and products to the equilibrium constant.

LeChatelier's Principle

Learning Goal:  To identify the effect that a stress has upon a system that is at equilibrium.

Nuclear Decay

Learning Goal:  To identify the various forms of nuclear decay and the effect of each upon the atomic number and mass number of an isotope.

We started adding Chemistry Concept Builders in September, 2018. As of this writing (early October, 2021), we have 48 Chemistry Concept Builders. We are NOT done.

This might be The Physics Classroom. But Chemistry is still a legal operation on this site. So enjoy our Chem Gems.