## Labs for Work and Energy

We have a collection of ~150 labs in the Laboratory section of the website. Each lab was intended to be used with a lab notebook where students report their data and findings and state their conclusion with supporting evidence and reasoning. The intent was to provide a relatively clear purpose (or question) to students that they would need to address AND to limit the amount of directions. The hope is that the purposes and students' ability to design a procedure would drive the lab activity (in contrast to a detailed set of step-by-step procedures being the driving force of students' activity). As such, each of our labs comes with a Question and Purpose and a short paragraph describing what should be included in students' lab report. On occassion, students are also provided a graphic organizer, data table, or other item to be taped into their notebook. The following pages may be useful for those teachers who wish to adopt or simply trial our Labs with a Purpose approach:

### Lab 1 - It's All Uphill

Question:
What effect does varying the angle of incline have upon the force needed to pull a cart up a hill at a constant speed to the same height? What effect does a varying incline angle have upon the work done?

Purpose:
To determine the effect of the angle of incline upon the force needed and upon the work done when pulling a cart up an incline to the same height at a constant speed.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table and graphs. A single sample calculation of the work should be shown in an organized manner. The Conclusion/Discussion should answer both questions posed in the Purpose and reference specific details from the data and graphs which provide the evidence for such a Conclusion; the link between the evidence and the conclusion should be clearly explained.

View: Teacher's Guide || Data Table

### Lab 2 - Powerhouse

Question:
What is my power requirement for climbing a staircase - both by walking and by running?

Purpose:
To determine my power requirement for climbing a staircase - both by walking and by running.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include a table of both measured and calculated data for both walking and running up a flight of stairs. The rows and columns should be labeled; units should be identified. Work should be shown for each calculation; the work should be labeled and easy to follow. The Conclusion should (as always) answer the questions posed in the Purpose.

View: Teacher's Guide

### Lab 3 - Energy on an Incline

Question:
What is the total amount of mechanical energy for a cart moving along an incline plane at five different locations? How do the results compare to the expected results?

Purpose:
To determine the total amount of mechanical energy of a cart on an inclined plane at 5 different positions and to compare the results to the expected results.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include the provided table. Work must be shown for the KE, PE and TME calculations. The energy bar charts should be completed. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a comparison of the total energy at the five positions and a generalization about the principle which the data support. An error analysis should be conducted in which the expectations are discussed; the degree to which the data align with the expectations should be described. Averaging and percent differences should be used.

View: Teacher's Guide || Data Table

### Lab 4 - Work-KE

Question:
What is the relationship between the work done upon a cart and the kinetic energy change of the cart as it is pulled along a level surface by a horizontal force?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship between or equation relating the work done upon a cart and the kinetic energy change of the cart as it is pulled along a level surface.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table of data. A sample calculation should be provided for each type of calculation; work should be clear and labeled. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a mathematical statement or equation which relates the work done upon the cart to the kinetic energy change of the cart. Evidence supporting the statement should be provided. An error analysis should be conducted.

View: Teacher's Guide || Data Table

### Lab 5 - Stopping Distance

Question:
What is the mathematical relationship between the stopping distance of a car and the initial speed of the car before braking?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e., equation) relating the stopping distance of a car and the initial speed of the car before braking.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should organize the collected data in a table with labeled column headings and units. A plot of stopping distance versus speed should be included; linear or power regression should be performed and the results (equation, statistical information, etc.) should be reported. The Conclusion should answer the question posed in the Purpose. The Discussion of Results section should use theoretical considerations to discuss the expected relationship; the degree to which the experimental results match the theoretically predicted results should be discussed.

View: Teacher's Guide

### Lab 6 - Energy of a Pendulum

Question:
What is the total amount of mechanical energy for a pendulum bob at three different locations along its path? How do the results compare to the expected results?

Purpose:
To determine the total amount of mechanical energy of a pendulum bob at three different positions along its trajectory and to compare the results to the expected results.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The data section should provide a graphic labeling the three locations in the trajectory of the bob which were analyzed. It should also include two tables of data - one for collected data and one for calculated data. The tables should have a row and column format; column headings should be clearly stated; units should be provided; work should be clearly shown for all calculated data. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a comparison of the total energy at three positions and a generalization about the principle which the data support. An error analysis should be conducted in which the expectations are discussed; the degree to which the data align with the expectations should be described. Averaging and percent differences should be used.

View: Teacher's Guide || Data Table

### Also Available ...

Physics teachers may find the following for-sale tools to be useful supplements to our Lesson Plan and Pacing Guide section:

1. Task Tracker Subscription (annual purchase)
A subscription allows teachers to set up classes, add students, customize online assignments, view student progress/scores, and export student scores. Task Tracker accounts allow your students to begin assignments in class or at school and to finish them at home. View our Seat and Cost Calculator for pricing details.

2. The Solutions Guide
We publish a free curriculum with >200 ready-to-use Think Sheets for developing physics concepts. The Solutions Guide is a download containing the source documents, PDFs of source documents, and answers/solutions in MS Word and PDF format. An expanded license agreement is included with the purchase. (Cost: \$25 download)

3. Teacher Presentation Pack
This is a large collection of downloadable content packed with nearly 190 Microsoft PowerPoint slide decks, the corresponding Lesson Notes (as PDF and fully-modifiable MS Word format), about 170 animations (in .gif, .png, and .mp4 file formats), a countless number of ready-to-use images (including the original source documents that would allow for easy modification of those images), and a license that allows teachers to modify and use all the content with their classes on password-protected sites (such as course management systems).  (Cost: \$40 download)

4. Question Bank
We distribute a Question Bank that includes more than 9300 questions neatly organized according to topic. The Question Bank is the perfect tool for busy teachers or new teachers. Even if you don't use the website with your classes, the Question Bank will assist you in quickly putting together quizzes, tests and other documents with high-quality questions that target student's conceptions of physics principles. And if you do use The Physics Classroom website, the Question Bank is the perfect complement to the materials found at the website. (Cost: \$25 download)