## Conceptual Physics Course Package

We will be beginning a project during the 2024-25 school year in which we create a package of materials to support teachers teaching a Conceptual Physics course. The downloadable package will include slide decks, think sheets, labs, quizzes, and tests. Answer keys will be provided. This will be a for-sale item that is offered to teachers. We hope to have the project completed before the start of the 2025-26 school year.

In creating our Lesson Plans and Learning Outcomes for this course we have referenced several of the items that we intend to place in the package. We have used red text wherever we have made such a reference. These items will only be available by purchase of the course package.

## Waves and Sound

The lesson plans below include links to the specific resources on our website.

Teacher Guides for labs can be found here.

NOTE: All CalcPad problem sets are customized problem sets created specifically for this course. The links direct users to the Guest version. Task Tracker users should use the link on the Task Tracker page to the trackable CalcPad version.

#### Day 1 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Introduce unit
2. Lab 1: Pendulum Paint (Whole class demonstration Lab)
Suspend an acrylic paint container from ceiling by two strings so it swings as a pendulum; set it up to slowly drip paint onto butcher paper below. Pendulum frequency can be controlled by holding strings at a fixed height while it is swinging. Start pendulum swinging and pull paper with a constant speed vehicle. Dripped paint forms a wave. Do two trials - one with red paint and a long pendulum and another with blue paint and a short pendulum. Use a short enough pendulum (and long enough paper) to get >2 cycles minimum. Measure time for 2 cycles, length of repeating pattern, and (in a separate trial) speed of tractor. Plan for a mess. Plan for a WOW!
3. Discuss vibrational motion: define: period, frequency, and amplitude; damping; use motion detector and vibrating mass on a spring to show that position and velocity vary as a function of time in a sinusoidal manner

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 0, Parts a and b
2. Concept Builder: Frequency and Period

#### Day 2 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Lab 2 - A Wiggle in Time and Space
Observe Particle Wave Simulation. Student's observe and describe a red particle's motion. They observe and describe all the particle's motion. They describe the motion of the resulting pattern moving across the screen.
Do and process; emphasize a vibration is a wiggle in time. A wave is a collection of wigglers ... a wiggle in time extended across space.
2. Discuss the nature of a wave and categories of waves (longitudinal vs. transverse; mechanical vs. EM)
3. Pair Practice: Waves Think Sheet
4. If time allows, Minds On Physics: Mission WM1 on Nature and Categories of Waves

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 1, Parts a, b, and c
2. Minds On Physics: Mission WM1 on Nature and Categories of Waves

#### Day 3 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Physics Interactives: Simple Wave Simulator with Student Activity Sheet
Do and process; assign accompanying Concept Checker
2. Discuss Wave Properties
Frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, speed - definitions, units, mathematical relationships
3. If time allows, do Simple Wave Simulator Concept Checker

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 2, Parts a, b, and c
2. If not done in class, complete Concept Checker: Simple Wave Simulator Concept Checker

#### Day 4 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Pair Practice: Wave Properties Think Sheet
Complete; check answers, then do ...
2. Concept Builder: Matching Pairs - Wave Characteristics
3. Concept Builder: Wave Basics
4. Lab 3 - Speed of a Wave
Do as a demo lab if equipment is limited or to insure best results.

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 2, Parts d and e
2. Complete any incomplete work: Matching Pairs - Wave CharacteristicsWave Basics

#### Day 5 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Discuss Wave Speed
Definition, units; v=d/t and v=f•λ; depends on properties of the medium
2. Pair Practice: Wave Speed Think Sheet
Complete; check answers; then do ...
3. Science Reasoning Center: Wave Speed
4. If time allows, start CalcPad: Waves and Sound 1 on Wave Speed

Homework/Announcements
1. Review as needed: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 2, Parts d and e
2. CalcPad: Waves and Sound 1 on Wave Speed

#### Day 6 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Physics Interactives: The Boundary Behavior of Waves with Student Activity Sheet
Do and process; discuss wave behavior at a boundary
2. Quick Quiz on Learning Outcomes 1 - 4

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 3, Parts a and b
2. Concept Checker: Boundary Behavior

#### Day 7 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Physics Interactives: Wave Addition with Student Activity Sheet
Do and process
2. Discuss Wave Interference
Definition; two types; result; diagram; principle of superposition

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 3, Part c
2. Concept Builder: Wave Interference

#### Day 8 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Review, then do Pair Practice: Wave Interference Think Sheet
2. Demonstrate/Discuss Standing Wave Patterns
Animation of how they are formed: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/xgq0tckhyz
Patterns, nodes, antinodes, wavelength-length relationship, harmonics; frequency relationships
3. Physics Interactives: Standing Wave Maker with Student Activity Sheet
Do; process. Follow up with the Concept Checker

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 4, Parts b, c, and d
2. If not done in class, complete Concept Checker

#### Day 9 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Review standing waves; demonstrate with a Slinky or a wave machine
2. Guided/Pair/Individual Practice: Standing Wave Mathematics Think Sheet
3. Minds On Physics: Mission WM7 on Standing Wave Patterns and Harmonics
4. If time allows, start CalcPad: Waves and Sound 2 on Standing Wave Math

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 4, Part e
2. CalcPad: Waves and Sound 2 on Standing Wave Math

#### Day 10 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Discuss Sound Waves
Mechanical wave; Longitudinal vibrations (in fluids) ==> Pressure Wave; compressions and rarefactions
Frequency/pitch; meaning of wavelength and amplitude; wave speed in air; intensity of sound; demonstrations
2. Pair Practice: Nature of Sound Think Sheet
3. Quick Quiz on Learning Outcomes 5 - 6

Homework/Announcements
1. Physics Classroom Tutorial, Sound Waves and Music: Lesson 1, Parts a, b, and c
2. Minds On Physics: Mission SM1 on The Nature of a Sound Wave

#### Day 11 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Review sound properties; then Pair Practice: Properties of Sound Waves Think Sheet
2. Lab 4 - Tuning Fork Frequency
3. Science Reasoning Center: Sound Intensity and the Decibel System (Activities 1 and 2 only)

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Sound Waves and Music: Lesson 2, Parts a, b, and c
2. Minds On Physics: Mission SM2 on Characteristics of Sound Waves

#### Day 12 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Discuss sound intensity and the deciBel Scale
Explain the logarithmic nature of deciBels; it's a "powers on 10 thing". Use Decibel Scale Think Sheet
2. Pair Practice: complete Decibel Scale Think Sheet
Do and check answers; then start ...
3. Concept Builder: Decibel Scale
4. If time allows, start Minds On Physics: Mission SM3 on Intensity and the Decibel Scale

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Sound Waves and Music: Lesson 2, Part b
2. Minds On Physics: Mission SM3 on Intensity and the Decibel Scale

#### Day 13 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Discuss natural frequency, forced vibrations, resonance; review harmonics and standing wave patterns; "fundamental frequency"; demonstrations.
2. Lab 5 - Natural Frequency and Standing Waves (as a demonstration lab)
Requires sound interface probes OR our Sound Spectrum Viewer in FFT Mode
3. Pair Practice: complete Resonance Think Sheet

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Sound Waves and Music: Lesson 4, all Parts
2. Minds On Physics: Mission SM5 on Resonance and Standing Wave Patterns

#### Day 14 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Review: Standing waves in strings
Nodes and antinodes; harmonics; wave patterns; length-wavelength relationship; fundamental frequency, fn = n•f1
2. Concept Builder: Wavelength (2nd and 3rd activities only)
3. Pair Practice: Standing Waves in Strings Think Sheet

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 5, Parts a and b
2. Minds On Physics: Mission SM6 on Harmonics for String Instrucments

#### Day 15 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Concept Builder: Name That Harmonic - Strings
2. Discuss Resonating Open-End Air Columns
Patterns, relationships between L and wavelength; fundamental frequency, fn = n•f1
3. CalcPad: Waves and Sound 3 on Resonating Strings

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 5, Part c
2. CalcPad: Waves and Sound 3 on Resonating Strings

#### Day 16 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Pair Practice: Math of Open-End Air Columns Think Sheet
2. Concept Builder: Name That Harmonic - Open-End Air Columns
3. Start CalcPad: Waves and Sound 4 on Open-End Air Columns

Homework/Announcements
1. Review as needed: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 5, Part c
2. CalcPad: Waves and Sound 4 on Open-End Air Columns

#### Day 17 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Discuss Resonating Closed-End Air Columns
Vibrational node at the closed-end, patterns, relationships between L and wavelength; fundamental frequency, fn = n•f1
2. Pair Practice: Math of Closed-End Air Columns Think Sheet
3. Lab 6 - Closed-End Air Columns
Force an adjustable-length air column (cylindrical tube suberged in the water of a 2-L graduated cylinder) into resonance using a tuning fork of known frequency; measure L of air column; calculate wavelength and determine wave speed; account for end-effects for best results

Homework/Announcements
1. Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 5, Part d
2. Minds On Physics: Mission SM10 on Harmonics for Closed-End Air Columns

#### Day 18 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Review closed-end mathematics; more practice
2. Concept Builder: Name That Harmonic - Closed-End Air Columns
3. CalcPad: Waves and Sound 5 on Closed-End Air Columns
4. Introduce Project: Design and Tune a Pan Flute

Homework/Announcements
1. Review as needed: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 5, Part d
2. CalcPad: Waves and Sound 5 on Closed-End Air Columns

#### Day 19 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
Project: Design and Tune a Pan Flute
• Create a pan flute using 8 PVC tubes (closed at one end) that play frequencies of 523 Hz (C5), 587 Hz (D5), 659 Hz (E5), 698 Hz (F5), 784 Hz (G5), 880 Hz (A5), 988 Hz (B5), and 1047 Hz (C6). Assume v = 340 m/s.
• Calculate the L of closed-end air column to produce such frequencies; check calculations with teacher
• Add 1 cm to L to allow for insertion of foam plug to close off end; cut PVC tubes to length
• Insert foam piece; adjust location and measure frequency using a frequency meter like Spectrum Viewer (<== we have one!!)
• Use trial-and-error to get the frequency perfect; then use hot glue to seal location of foam piece
• Repeat for all 8 PVC tubes
• Assemble PVC tubes with open-ends flush to produce final instrument
• Look up some simple songs to play with C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C. Pick a song and practice playing the song.

Homework/Announcements
1. Complete all unfinished work

#### Day 20 of Vibrations, Waves, and Sound

Lesson Plan
1. Discuss tomorrow's test
2. Day 2 of Project: Design and Tune a Pan Flute
• Create a pan flute using 8 PVC tubes (closed at one end) that play frequencies of 523 Hz (C5), 587 Hz (D5), 659 Hz (E5), 698 Hz (F5), 784 Hz (G5), 880 Hz (A5), 988 Hz (B5), and 1047 Hz (C6). Assume v = 340 m/s.
• Calculate the L of closed-end air column to produce such frequencies; check calculations with teacher
• Add 1 cm to L to allow for insertion of foam plug to close off end; cut PVC tubes to length
• Insert foam piece; adjust location and measure frequency using a frequency meter like Spectrum Viewer (<== we have one!!)
• Use trial-and-error to get the frequency perfect; then use hot glue to seal location of foam piece
• Repeat for all 8 PVC tubes
• Assemble PVC tubes with open-ends flush to produce final instrument
• Look up some simple songs to play with C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C. Pick a song and practice playing the song.

Homework/Announcements
1. Prepare for Tomorrow's Test
2. Complete all unfinished work