## Work and Energy Notebook Labs

The following items should be in the Work and Energy portion of your notebook. They should be clearly organized and easy to find. Use an organizational system and label all work. Each lab will be graded separately.

### E1. It's All Uphill Lab

**Question:**

What effect does varying the angle of incline have upon the force needed to pull a cart up a hill at a constant speed to the same height? What effect does a varying incline angle have upon the work done?

**Purpose:**

To determine the effect of the angle of incline upon the force needed and upon the work done when pulling a cart up an incline to the same height at a constant speed.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table and graphs. A single sample calculation of the work should be shown in an organized manner. The Conclusion/Discussion should answer both questions posed in the Purpose and reference specific details from the data and graphs which provide the evidence for such a Conclusion; the link between the evidence and the conclusion should be clearly explained.

### E2. It's All Uphill - The Sequel Lab

**Question:**

What effect does the height of the final destination have upon the work done to pull a cart up an incline at constant speed? What is the mathematical equation expressing the relationship between the work and the height?

**Purpose:**

To determine the effect of the height of an incline upon the work done when pulling a cart up the incline at a constant speed; and to determine the mathematical equation relating the work to the height.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the resulting measurements and calculations for several trials. A single sample calculation of the work should be shown in an organized manner. A plot of Work vs. Height should be constructed; the shape of the graph should be sketched and statistical information (slope, y-intercept, and regression constant) should be reported. The Conclusion/Discussion should report the mathematical equation and identify the relationship between the work and the height. Evidence for the effect of the height on the work should be discussed.

### E3. Powerhouse Lab

**Question:**

What is my power requirement for climbing a staircase - both by walking and by running?

**Purpose:**

To determine my power requirement for climbing a staircase - both by walking and by running.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include a table of both measured and calculated data for both walking and running up a flight of stairs. The rows and columns should be labeled; units should be identified. Work should be shown for each calculation; the work should be labeled and easy to follow. The Conclusion should (as always) answer the questions posed in the Purpose.

### E4. Marble Energy Lab

**Question:**

What is the effect of varying the release location of a marble along an incline upon the distance which the marble drives *a paper plow* along a level table? Can an equation be written which describes the effect (presuming that there is one)?

**Purpose:**

To determine the effect of the release location (distance from the bottom) of a marble along an incline upon the distance which a *paper plow* is driven along the level table; and to determine a mathematical equation which describes the relationship between these two variables.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram or sketch of the situation. The strategic variables being measured or investigated should be identified on the diagram. A table of collected data should be included; columns should be labeled and units identified. A plot of the two measured quantities should be constructed and sketched; linear regression or power regression should be performed and statistical information (e.g., slope, y-intercept, and regression constant) should be reported. The Conclusion/Discussion should answer the questions posed in the Purpose and discuss the evidence which supports such answers.

### E5. Marble Energy II Lab

**Question:**

What effect does the angle of an incline have upon the distance which a rolling marble drives a *paper plow * along a level table?

**Purpose:**

To determine the effect of the incline angle upon the distance which a *paper plow * is driven along the level table by a rolling marble.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram or sketch of the situation. The strategic variables being measured or investigate should be identified on the diagram. A table of collected data should be included; columns should be labeled and units identified. A plot of distance driven vs. angle should be constructed and sketched. The Conclusion/Discussion should answer the question posed in the Purpose and discuss the evidence which supports the conclusion.

### E6. Work-Kinetic

**Question:**

What is the relationship between the work done upon a cart and the kinetic energy change of the cart as it is pulled along a level surface by a horizontal force?

**Purpose:**

To determine the mathematical relationship between or equation relating the work done upon a cart and the kinetic energy change of the cart as it is pulled along a level surface.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided table of data. A sample calculation should be provided for each type of calculation; work should be clear and labeled. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a mathematical statement or equation which relates the work done upon the cart to the kinetic energy change of the cart. Evidence supporting the statement should be provided. An error analysis should be conducted.

### E7. Energy on an Incline Lab

**Question:**

What is the total amount of mechanical energy for a cart moving along an incline plane at five different locations? How do the results compare to the expected results?

**Purpose:**

To determine the total amount of mechanical energy of a cart on an inclined plane at 5 different positions and to compare the results to the expected results.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include the provided table. Work must be shown for the KE, PE and TME calculations. The energy bar charts should be completed. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a comparison of the total energy at the five positions and a generalization about the principle which the data support. An error analysis should be conducted in which the expectations are discussed; the degree to which the data align with the expectations should be described. Averaging and percent differences should be used.

### E8. Energy of a Pendulum Lab

**Question:**

What is the total amount of mechanical energy for a pendulum bob at three different locations along its path? How do the results compare to the expected results?

**Purpose:**

To determine the total amount of mechanical energy of a pendulum bob at three different positions along its trajectory and to compare the results to the expected results.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The data section should provide a graphic labeling the three locations in the trajectory of the bob which were analyzed. It should also include two tables of data - one for collected data and one for calculated data. The tables should have a row and column format; column headings should be clearly stated; units should be provided; work should be clearly shown for all calculated data. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a comparison of the total energy at three positions and a generalization about the principle which the data support. An error analysis should be conducted in which the expectations are discussed; the degree to which the data align with the expectations should be described. Averaging and percent differences should be used.

### E9. Spring Energy Lab

**Question:**

What is the total amount of mechanical energy for a mass on a spring at four different locations along its trajectory? How do the results compare to the expected results?

**Purpose:**

To compare the total amount of mechanical energy of a mass on a spring at four different positions along its trajectory and to compare the results to the expected results.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The data section should provide a graphic labeling the four locations in the trajectory of the mass which were analyzed. It should include two tables of data - one for collected data and one for calculated data. The tables should have a row and column format; column headings should be clearly stated; units should be provided; work should be clearly shown for all calculated data. The Conclusion/Discussion should include a comparison of the total energy at four positions and a generalization about the principle which the data support. An error analysis should be conducted in which the expectations are discussed; the degree to which the data align with the expectations should be described. Averaging and percent differences can be used.

### E10. Elastic Cord Spreadsheet Study

**Question:**

(To be identified by the student.)

**Purpose:**

(To be identified by the student.)

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Description of Study section, a Data section, a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. In this lab, you will be provided a spreadsheet which models the motion of a vertically moving object attached to a spring or a spring-like system. The object is under the influence of spring, gravity and air resistance forces. Input variables for the spreadsheet include object spring constant, spring location, object mass, initial height, initial velocity, launch angle, acceleration of gravity, and cross-sectional area. Output variables include velocity, air resistance, net force, acceleration, position and energy values - each being listed as a function of time. You will identify a purpose you wish to study using the spreadsheet. You must run at least two trials as a comparison-contrast associated with your question. The Purpose should be a succinct statement which focuses on an intriguing and ambitious question which can be answered by the spreadsheet. The Description of Study section should include a discussion of how you conducted your study so as to accomplish the purpose; explain what input variables you modified or kept fixed and what output variables you observed. The Data section should list the input data and include pertinent output data related to your purpose. The Data section should also include a plot of PE_{elast}, PE_{grav}, KE, and W versus time. The plotted lines should be labeled and/or color-coded to distinguish between them. The Conclusion/Discussion should provide the answer to the question posed in the purpose of the lab and include a discussion of the evidence and rationale which lead from data to answer. The Conclusion/Discussion should also include a discussion of the energy characteristics of the motion – describing how energy is transformed between forms, conserved or not conserved.

### E11. Stopping Distance Lab

**Question:**

What is the mathematical relationship between the stopping distance of a car and the initial speed of the car before braking?

**Purpose:**

To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e., equation) relating the stopping distance of a car and the initial speed of the car before braking.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should organize the collected data in a table with labeled column headings and units. A plot of stopping distance versus speed should be included; linear or power regression should be performed and the results (equation, statistical information, etc.) should be reported. The Conclusion should answer the question posed in the Purpose. The Discussion of Results section should use theoretical considerations to discuss the expected relationship; the degree to which the experimental results match the theoretically predicted results should be discussed.

### E12. All Work and No Play Lab

**Question:**

How does the work done upon a cart compare to the potential energy change of the cart as it is pulled up a hill at a constant speed by a horizontal force?

**Purpose:**

To compare the work done on a cart to the potential energy change of the cart asit is pulled up a hill at a constant speed by a horizontal force.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a table of collected and calculated data (or two tables). Work should be clearly shown for each type of calculation performed. The Conclusion should answer the *question* posed in the Purpose. The Discussion of Results section should logically discuss how the data serve as evidence for the conclusion. An error analysis should be conducted and percent difference calculations should be included; as always, work should be shown for at least one of the calculations.