## Newton's Laws Notebook Labs

The following items should be in the Newton's Laws portion of your notebook. They should be clearly organized and easy to find. Use an organizational system and label all work. Each lab will be graded separately.

### NL1. Pass the Water Lab

Question:
Under what conditions is water most likely to spill from a pan when the pan is carried around an oval race track?

Purpose:
To carry a pan of water around an oval race track in an effort to determine the conditions under which the water is most likely to be spilled from the pan.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section (which includes a diagram of the oval track and identified locations of water spillage), a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. As usual, the Conclusion should answer the question proposed in the purpose of the lab. The Discussion of Results should include a discussion of the relationship between your findings and Newton's first law of motion.

### NL2. Galileo for a Day Lab

Question:
What effect does minimizing friction have upon the motion of an object after an initial push is applied to it?

Purpose:
To determine the effect of minimizing friction upon the subsequent motion of an object after it is set in motion by an initial push.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion, a Discussion of Results and Post Lab Questions. The Data section should include a velocity-time graph with several lines or several velocity-time graphs with one line; the graphs should be labeled and communicate the effect of minimizing friction upon the subsequent motion of the object. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose of the lab (as always). The Discussion of Results section should reference the Data section and discuss the supporting evidence for the conclusion; a statement should be made about the expected result under a condition of no friction. The sheet of Post-Lab questions should be answered and posted into your notebook.

### NL3. Wait! Hmmm. Gee. Lab

Question:
What is the relationship between the mass of an object and the force of gravity which acts upon the object?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e., the equation) which relates an object's mass (m) to the force of gravity (Fgrav) which acts upon the mass.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a table of data and a plot of the data; the results of a linear regression analysis should also be included. Class data should be reported. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose of the lab (as always). The Discussion of Results section should reference the Data section and discuss the supporting evidence for the conclusion. An error analysis should be included.

### NL4. F-m-a Lab

Question:
What effect does varying force and varying mass have upon the acceleration?

Purpose:
To use experimental data to determine the mathematical equation which relates force, mass and acceleration.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include two acceleration-force graphs (one for each mass) with a sketch of the plotted points, the best estimate on the slope of the line, and an indication of the mass of the cart. Class data should be included for the other lab groups. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose of the lab (as always). The Discussion of Results section should reference the Data section and thoroughly discuss the supporting evidence for the conclusion. The effect of mass and the meaning of the slope of the line should be clearly discussed.

### NL5. Coffee Filter Skydiver Lab

Question:
How does the velocity and acceleration of a falling object change over time when under the dual influence of gravity and air resistance?

Purpose:
To describe how the velocity and acceleration of an object change over time when falling under the dual influence of gravity and air resistance and to explain why such changes are observed.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs for a falling filter. The Conclusion/Discussion should reference the data to describe how the velocity and acceleration of the falling filter changed over time. An effort should be made to use the theoretical model of NewtonÃ•s laws of motion to thoroughly explain why such changes occurred.

### NL6. From a Feather to an Elephant Lab

Question:
What effect does varying mass have upon the terminal velocity value of an object which is falling under the dual influence of gravity and air resistance?

Purpose:
To describe the effect of varying mass upon the ultimate terminal velocity value of an object which is falling under the dual influence of gravity and air resistance.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include velocity-time graphs for several trials of varying number of filters. Relative values of the terminal velocity should somehow be indicated for the various numbers of filters so as to make a conclusion possible. The Conclusion/Discussion should reference the data to describe how varying mass effected the terminal velocity value (provided such a conclusion can be supported by the data).

### NL7. Falling Body Spreadsheet Study

Question:
(To be identified by the student.)

Purpose:
(To be identified by the student.)

### NL8. Friction Lab

Question:
What is the value of the coefficients of static and sliding friction between two surfaces?

Purpose:
To use methods of graphical analysis to determine the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between two surfaces.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a table of collected data organized in labeled columns. Sketches of the plots of Ffrict versus Fnorm should be included for both the static and the sliding situation and the results of a linear regression analysis should be reported. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose of the lab. The Discussion of Results should explain the logical connection between the graphical information and the coefficient of friction values.

### NL9. Mu Shoe Phyzx Lab

Question:
What sports shoe offers the greatest amount of traction for both lateral and longitudinal movements as reflected by the coefficient of static friction values?

Purpose:
To determine the coefficient of static friction for both lateral and longitudinal movements for a variety of shoes and to use such values to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the shoes in terms of providing traction.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Description of Study section, a Data section, a Conclusion, and a Discussion of Results. The Description of Study section describes the methods used to collect data; the rationale behind the methods are explained; attention is given to the dependent and independent variables. The Data section includes a complete record of collected data organized in a row-column format. Sample calculations are shown and calculated Âµ values are organized in the table. Trials might be repeated to insure accuracy and precision. The Conclusion should (as always) respond to the question raised in the Purpose of the lab. The Discussion of Results should provide a reflection upon the results (Were any results surprising? suspicious? expected?), discuss any possible errors associated with the study, and suggest possible alternative approaches which would improve the study.

### NL10. Breaking Strength Lab

Question:
What is the breaking strength of a light string?

Purpose:
To determine the breaking strength of a light string.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of your experimental setup and the data for a collection of trials. Trials should be repeated to insure precise results. Observational notes regarding the rate at which the string was pulled should be included with each trial. An average breaking strength value should be reported. The Conclusion/Discussion should respond (as always) to the question raised in the Purpose. Any important information pertinent to your determined value and the manner in which your study was conducted should be discussed.

### NL11. Two-Body Lab

Question:
What is the mathematical relationship between the mass, applied force, internal force and acceleration for a two body system and for the individual objects within the system?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship between the mass, applied force, the internal force, and the acceleration for a two body system and for the individual objects of the system.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include an informative and labeled diagram which illustrates how each part of the study was conducted. Collected data should be listed in either table form or on the diagram. Relevant calculations should be shown and tabulated (or somehow organized). The Conclusion/Discussion should identify some mathematical relationships (in the form of equations) which were discovered through the study and provide the necessary references to data trials and calculations in order to logically support such conclusions.

### NL12. Ut Tensio, Sic Vis Lab

Question:
What is the mathematical relationship (i.e., the equation) between the force applied to a spring and the amount of stretch of the spring?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical relationship (i.e., the equation) between the force applied to a spring and the amount of stretch of the spring.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the collected data listed in a row-column format; a plot of the amount of stretch versus the applied force should be sketched and the results of a linear regression analysis should be reported. The Conclusion/Discussion should identify some mathematical equation which relates the two quantities under study. The historical significance of the title of the lab should be discussed (a simple Googling should help) and related to this lab. The meaning of any constants in the equation should also be discussed.

### NL13. Normal Force-o-meter Lab

Question:
How can Hooke's law be used to construct a normal force-o-meter and how can the normal force-o-meter be used to analyze a simulated free fall ride?

Purpose:
To use Hooke's law and a simple spring system to create and calibrate a normal force-o-meter (erroneously referred to as an accelerometer) and to use it to analyze a simulated free fall ride.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a diagram of your constructed normal force-o-meter; the various markings should be shown and labeled (0•mg, 1•mg, 2•mg, etc.). Data should be recorded for a simulated free fall ride (the Mini Drop); values of Fnorm should be recorded: (a) during the constant speed ride to the top of the tower, (b) at the stationary position at the top of the tower, (c) during the free fall stage, and (d) during the braking state at the bottom of the tower. Values of Fnorm should be combined with an FBD to calculate the Fnet and acceleration values; all work should be shown. The Conclusion/Discussion should explain how the stretch of the spring on the constructed normal force-o-meter allows one to determine the acceleration.