Reflection and Mirrors Notebook Labs

The following items should be in the Reflection and Mirrors portion of your notebook. They should be clearly organized and easy to find. Use an organizational system and label all work. Each lab will be graded separately. Eleven Reflection and Mirrors lab grades will be entered into the gradebook. An overall notebook grade will be determined based on your use of the notebook as an organized and effective record-keeping tool which documents your engagement in the learning cycle during classtime.

RM1. Reflection Lab

Question:
What general principle could be made to describe how light reflects off a plane mirror surface?

Purpose:
To determine a general principle which describes the manner in which light reflects off a plane mirror surface.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section (with provided graphic and several labeled laser light paths), a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Conclusion should include a generalized statement expressed in your own words which describes how light reflects off a mirror. The Discussion of Results should describe how the findings reported in the Data section logically lead to the conclusion which you have made. Specific trials that justify your conclusion should be identified.

RM2. Plane Mirror Image Lab

Question:
How does the distance from object to the mirror compare to the distance from the image to the mirror?

Purpose:
To compare the object's distance from the mirror to the image's distance from the mirror.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a mirror line (labeled), three sets of incident and reflected rays originating from the same location, extensions of reflected rays to show image location, and clearly labeled measurements of object and image distances. The Conclusion should respond to the question raised in the Purpose of the lab (as always). The Discussion of Results section should discuss the supporting evidence for the conclusion; should include a percent difference calculation for the image and object distance.

RM3. Rough versus Smooth Lab

Question:
How does reflection of light off a paper surface compare to the reflection of light off a plane mirror surface? What if the paper is uniformly wet?

Purpose:
To compare the reflection of light off a dry mirror surface, a dry paper surface and a wet paper surface and to explain the observed differences.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include a collection of well-documented observations regarding the reflection of light off paper, mirror, and wet paper. The Conclusion/Discussion section should include a well-written discussion comparing and contrasting the reflection of light off paper, mirror and wet paper. A reasonable and thorough explanation of the differences should be given.

RM4. What Portion ...? Lab

Question:
How does the amount of mirror required to view an image of yourself compare to your height? Does the distance from the mirror affect your answer?

Purpose:
To use laser light in order to compare the portion of a mirror required for a person to view him/herself to the height of the person.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided diagram with laser-guided incident and reflected rays showing the path of light from the head and toe to the eye for two different object locations; measurements should be clearly made and labeled on the diagrams. Class data should be included in the Data section. The Discussion of Results should include a discussion of how the collected data lead logically to the stated conclusion. The Discussion section should also include an error analysis comparing the experimental results to the expected results; a percent error analysis might be included.

RM5. Right Angle Mirror Lab

Question:
At what location is the secondary image for a right angle mirror formed? What theoretical rule or general strategy could be stated to predict its location if given the object location?

Purpose:
To describe the location of the secondary image formed by a right angle mirror and to state a theoretical rule which could be used in predicting its location.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include the provided diagram with two sets of laser-guided incident and reflected rays showing the path of light from the object off both mirrors. The reflected rays (off the second mirror) should be extended by dashed lines behind the mirror; the image location should be marked and labeled. Class data should be included in the Data section and distinguished from individual data. A student might record and label some measurements. In addition to the usual treatment of the connection between the evidence and the conclusion, the Discussion of Results section should include an error analysis.

Question:
What is the mathematical relationship between the number of images formed by a combination of two plane mirrors and the angle between the mirrors?

Purpose:
To determine the mathematical equation which relates the number of images (N) to the angle (Theta) between two plane mirrors.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include an organized table of labeled data (with unit), a graph of the number of images vs. the angle between mirror (with labeled axes) and some form of data analysis which leads to an appropriate conclusion. The data analysis could involve linear regression (with slope, y-intercept, regression constant and equation), power regression (with coefficients, power, regression constant and equation) or simply a trial and error process of equation fitting. Whatever method is used to link the data to an equation, the process should be fully documented.

RM7. Infinity Derivation

Question:
What mathematical equation could be written to describe the image distances resulting from a set of parallel plane mirrors?

Purpose:
To use geometry and mathematical reasoning in order to determine the mathematical equation which could predict the location of an image formed by a set of parallel plane mirrors.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. (This lab is unique in that there are neither measurements nor observations; knowledge is generated using mathematical/logical thought.) The Data section should include the provided diagram; the diagram shows an object positioned between two mirrors separated by a distance dseparation ; The object is a distance dleft from the left-most mirror and dright from the right-most mirror. Primary, secondary, tertiary, quartenary, Ã‰ images to the left and the right of the two mirrors should be located and labeled. Distances to the mirrors should be labeled as well. Once repeated for several images (a minimum of five), an effort should be made to generate a mathematical equation which predicts the image distance (dimage n) for the nth image to the right of the right-most mirror. Unsuccessful (perhaps several)and successful equations should be listed in the Data section; that is, document the process (scribbles, cross-outs, and start-overs due to failed attempts are more scientific than clean, sterile and pristine reports which fail to capture the analysis process). The Discussion of Results section should demonstrate how the derived equation effectively predicts the image distances for the first five images to the right of the right-most mirror.

RM8. Exploring Curved Mirrors Lab

Question:
How does the orientation and relative size of an image change as the object is moved from a position close to a concave mirror (and a convex mirror) to a position very far away?

Purpose:
To describe the changes in the relative image size and image orientation which are observed as a person moves from a position very close to a curved mirror (both concave and convex) to a position very far away.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section (with organized observations for the two types of mirrors), and a Conclusion/Discussion. The Conclusion/Discussion section should include a discussion of the manner in which the relative image size and orientation change as the object moves from a nearby position to a distant position. The discussion should include both types of curved mirrors.

RM9. Finding Smiley Lab

Question:
How can a graphical representation of object distance and image distance be interpreted? What meaning can be gleaned from the graph?

Purpose:
To graphically represent the relationship between the object distance and the image distance (for a concave mirror) and to glean meaningful information from the graph.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion/Discussion. The Data section should include a table of dobject and dimage data and a plot of image distance vs. object distance. A best fit line should be included on the plot; strategic locations and distances should be marked (for subsequent reference in the Discussion section). The Conclusion/Discussion section should describe the relationship between the two quantities and extract a wealth of meaning regarding object-image distance relationships. Writing should be clear, specific and thorough.

RM10.Magnification Ratio Lab

Question:
What object locations (relative to the surface of a concave mirror and expressed in terms of focal lengths) would result in the formation of images with magnification values of -1, -2, and -0.5?

Purpose:
To determine the object distances (expressed in terms of f) which would be required to produce an image magnification of -1, -2 and -0.5 and to use the results to determine the focal length of the mirror.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, a Conclusion and a Discussion of Results. The Data section should include a table of M , do, di and f values and labeled work shown for at least one f calculation. The Conclusion should identify the object distances (in terms of focal lengths: 2f, 3f, 4f, etc.) required for the specified M values and should state the focal length. The Discussion section should discuss how the focal length was determined, how the object distances (in terms of focal lengths) were determined and should include a thorough error analysis for each of the three trials.

RM11. Mirror Equation Derivation

Question:
How can geometry, algebra and simple ray construction be used with a concave mirror in order to develop a relationship between the object distance, image distance and focal length?

Purpose:
To use geometry, algebra and simple ray construction in order to develop a mathematical equation relating the object distance, image distance and focal length.

A complete lab write-up includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion. The Data section should include the provided graphic with the completed ray diagram. Strategic locations on the diagram should be clearly labeled with a letter. The derivation of the mirror equation should follow. Similar right triangles should be identified; algebraic manipulations should be shown in an organized, step-by-step fashion.