## Learning Outcomes for Waves and Sound

The list below displays sample learning objectives for the unit on Static Electricity. The various activities from the Lesson Plans have been organized by objective. This format of organizing The Physics Classroom's activities may be more useful to some teachers than the Lesson Plan format. It is worth noting that the activities identified below only include those activities included on the Lesson Plans and in the Pre-Built Task Tracker courses. Additional activities are referenced on the Teacher Notes page.

### 1. Vibrations

Recognize the distinction between a vibration and a wave; define and identify the units of frequency and period; calculate the frequency and the period from given information.

Video:

Labs:
Lab 1: A Wiggle in Time

Concept Builders:

### 2. The Nature and Categories of a Wave

Describe the nature of a wave as repeating and periodic disturbance that moves through a medium by particle-to-particle interaction to transport energy from the vibrating source to distant locations; describe various contrasting categories of waves - such as longitudinal and transverse - using words and diagrams.

Reading: Physics Classroom Tutorial, Vibrations and Waves: Lesson 1, Parts a, b, and c

Video:

Labs:
Lab 2 - A Wiggle in Time and Space

Think Sheets:

Concept Builders:

Minds On Physics:
Mission WM1 on Nature and Categories of Waves

### 3. Properties of Waves

Describe (in words, and with diagrams and/or equations) wave properties such as amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period, and speed; identify the units of each and determine their values if provided sufficient information.

Video:

Think Sheets:

Physics Interactives with Concept Checkers:

Concept Builders:

Minds On Physics:
Mission WM2 on Wave Characteristics

Waves and Sound 1: Wave Properties

### 4. Wave Speed

Identify the variables that affect and do not affect the speed of a wave in a given medium; calculate the wave speed from distance-time information or from wavelength-frequency information.

Video:

Labs:
Lab 3 - Speed of a WaveLab 3 - Speed of a Wave

Think Sheets:

Concept Builders:

Minds On Physics:
Mission WM3 on Speed of a Wave

Waves and Sound 1: Wave Properties

### 5. Behaviors of Waves

Use words and diagrams to describe a variety of wave behaviors such as reflection/transmission at a boundary and interference.

Video:

Think Sheets:

Physics Interactives with Concept Checkers:

Concept Builders:

Minds On Physics:
Mission WM5 on Boundary Behavior of Waves

Mission WM6 on Interference of Waves

### 6. Standing Wave Patterns and Harmonics

Discuss how a standing wave pattern is formed; describe and diagram the standing wave pattern for the first five harmonics; related the frequencies and wavelengths of the various harmonics to the frequency and wavelength of the first harmonic.

Video:

Think Sheets:

Physics Interactives with Concept Checkers:

Minds On Physics:
Mission WM7 on Standing Wave Patterns and Harmonics

Waves and Sound 2: Standing Wave Math

### 7. Nature of a Sound Wave

Describe the nature of a sound wave as a longitudinal, pressure wave that requires a medium to propagate from the vibrating source to a distant location; identify the compressions and rarefactions in a diagram and relate these regions to the relative pressure.

Video:

Science Reasoning Center:

Think Sheets:

Minds On Physics:
Mission SM1 on The Nature of a Sound Wave

### 8. Properties of Sound Waves

Describe properties of sound waves such as frequency (pitch), wavelength, speed, intensity, and the deciBel rating; perform calculations of wave speed and the deciBel rating if given sufficient information.

Video:

Labs:
Lab 4: Speed of Sound

Think Sheets:

Concept Builders:

Minds On Physics:
Mission SM3 on Intensity and the Decibel Scale

Waves and Sound 3: Sound Properties

### 9. Resonance

Explain what resonance is and the result of resonance; draw the standing wave patterns for various resonances or harmonics; relate the frequencies of the harmonics to one another.

Video:

Labs:
Lab 5: Natural Frequency and Standing Waves

Think Sheets:

Minds On Physics:
Mission SM5 on Resonance and Standing Wave Patterns

### 10. Harmonics in Vibrating Strings

Construct the standing wave pattern for the first five harmonics of a resonating string; relate the frequencies and wavelengths of these harmonics to the frequency and wavelength of the fundamental; conduct a full mathematical anaysis of a resonating string.

Video:

Think Sheets:

Concept Builders:

Waves and Sound 4: Resonating Strings

### 11. Harmonics in Closed-End Air Columns

Construct the standing wave pattern for the first five harmonics of a resonating air column (closed-end); relate the frequencies and wavelengths of these harmonics to the frequency and wavelength of the fundamental; conduct a full mathematical anaysis of a closed-end, resonating air column.

Video:

Labs:
Lab 6: Closed-End Air Columns

Think Sheets:

Concept Builders:

Minds On Physics:
Mission SM10 on Harmonics for Closed-End Air Columns

Waves and Sound 5: Resonating Air Columns

Waves and Sound 6: Resonating Air Columns

### 12. Harmonics in Open-End Air Columns

Construct the standing wave pattern for the first five harmonics of a resonating air column (open-end); relate the frequencies and wavelengths of these harmonics to the frequency and wavelength of the fundamental; conduct a full mathematical anaysis of a open-end, resonating air column.

Video:

Labs:
Lab 7: Open-End Air Columns

Think Sheets:

Concept Builders:

Minds On Physics:
Mission SM8 on Harmonics for Open-End Air Columns

Waves and Sound 5: Resonating Air Columns

Waves and Sound 6: Resonating Air Columns

### Also Available ...

Physics teachers may find the following for-sale tools to be useful supplements to our Lesson Plan and Pacing Guide section:

1. Task Tracker Subscription (annual purchase)
A subscription allows teachers to set up classes, add students, customize online assignments, view student progress/scores, and export student scores. Task Tracker accounts allow your students to begin assignments in class or at school and to finish them at home. View our Seat and Cost Calculator for pricing details.

2. The Solutions Guide
We publish a free curriculum with >200 ready-to-use Think Sheets for developing physics concepts. The Solutions Guide is a download containing the source documents, PDFs of source documents, and answers/solutions in MS Word and PDF format. An expanded license agreement is included with the purchase. (Cost: \$25 download)

3. Teacher Presentation Pack
This is a large collection of downloadable content packed with nearly 190 Microsoft PowerPoint slide decks, the corresponding Lesson Notes (as PDF and fully-modifiable MS Word format), about 170 animations (in .gif, .png, and .mp4 file formats), a countless number of ready-to-use images (including the original source documents that would allow for easy modification of those images), and a license that allows teachers to modify and use all the content with their classes on password-protected sites (such as course management systems).  (Cost: \$40 download)

4. Question Bank
We distribute a Question Bank that includes more than 9300 questions neatly organized according to topic. The Question Bank is the perfect tool for busy teachers or new teachers. Even if you don't use the website with your classes, the Question Bank will assist you in quickly putting together quizzes, tests and other documents with high-quality questions that target student's conceptions of physics principles. And if you do use The Physics Classroom website, the Question Bank is the perfect complement to the materials found at the website. (Cost: \$25 download)